The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485)

The Wars of the Roses were a series of dynastic civil wars for the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the Houses of Lancaster and York. They were fought in several sporadic episodes between 1455 and 1485, although there was related fighting both before and after this period. The nobles were divided into two groups, one supporting the House of Lancaster, whose symbol was a red rose, the other the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose. Three decades of almost continual war ended in 1485, when Henry Tudor (Lancastrian) defeated and killed Richard III (Yorkist) at the Battle of Boswort Field. Henry Tudor married Edward IV's daughter Elizabeth of York to unite the two houses. The House of Tudor subsequently ruled England and Wales for 117 years.

Henry VII's victory in 1485 typically marks the end of the Middle Ages in England and the start of the Early Modern period.